For the purposes of the 15th General Elections (“GE15”), the Pakatan Harapan coalition launched the Harapan Action Plan (“HAP”).[1]

At page 40 of the HAP, the Pakatan Harapan coalition outlined that it intends to separate the roles and responsibilities of the Public Prosecutor from the Attorney General (“the Separation”):

The Separation is not a novel one as it was mooted in Pakatan Harapan’s manifesto for the 14th General Elections.[2]

Unfortunately, despite being successful in the 14th General Elections, the Separation did not materialise during the Pakatan Harapan coalition’s 22 months in power.[3]

In fact, there was controversy surrounding some of the prosecutorial decisions made when Tan Sri Tommy Thomas (Pakatan Harapan coalition’s choice for Attorney General)[4] was the Attorney General.[5]

Post-GE15, Dato’ Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (Pakatan Harapan’s GE15 candidate for Prime Minister) has been sworn in as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia[6] and the current Federal Government is in effect a Pakatan Harapan coalition-led government.

It is now time for Pakatan Harapan to fulfill its plans in the HAP. One of the major institutional reforms planned in the HAP is the Separation.

Some possible models for implementing the Separation can be gleaned from Commonwealth jurisdictions such as Bangladesh, India, Jamaica, and Kenya.[7]

Legally, the Separation would require a constitutional amendment to inter alia Article 145 of the Federal Constitution.[8]

Such a constitutional amendment would require two third majority as per Article 159(3) of the Federal Constitution.[9]

The current Federal Government, led by Dato’ Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim, at the time of writing, appears to have two third majority support in the Dewan Rakyat (lower house of Parliament).[10]

The Pakatan Harapan coalition thus has a golden opportunity to bring about major institutional reform by passing a constitutional amendment act to implement the Separation.

Post-Script: Dato’ Sri Azalina binti Othman Said, the Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department (Law and Institutional Reform), announced on 7th December 2022 that the first steps for the Separation have been taken. [11]

[1] “Harapan Action Plan”. Kita Boleh, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[2] “Buku Harapan Rebuilding Our Nation Fulfilling Our Hopes”. DAP Malaysia, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[3] Xiang Yun, Yee. “GE15: Pakatan’s 22 months in power insufficient to fulfil GE14 pledges, says Loke”. The Star, 8th November 2022, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[4] Nadirah Ibrahim, Ida. “Tommy Thomas is new AG”. Malay Mail, 5th June 2018, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[5] E.g. Palansamy, Yiswaree. “Ex-CJ roasts Tommy Thomas over Guan Eng’s acquittal”. Malay Mail, 9th September 2018, Accessed 7th December 2022; Malaysia Now. “Task force gives damning appraisal of Tommy Thomas’ conduct as AG”. Malaysia Now, 7th October 2022, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[6] New Straits Times. “Anwar Ibrahim sworn in as Malaysia’s 10th Prime Minister”. New Straits Times, 24th November 2022, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[7] Wu Kai-Ming, Joshua. “Selected Commonwealth Jurisdictions with Fully Separated Roles of the Attorney General and Public Prosecutor”. Joshua Wu, 9th August 2022, Accessed 7th December 2022

[8] “Federal Constitution”. Judicial Appointments Commission, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[9] “Federal Constitution”. Judicial Appointments Commission, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[10] Tee, Kenneth. “Anwar: Two-thirds majority in Dewan Rakyat with GRS joining unity govt”. Malay Mail, 2nd December 2022, Accessed 7th December 2022.

[11] FMT Reporters. “Azalina initiates ‘first step’ in separating AG, public prosecutor’s roles”. Free Malaysia Today, 7th December 2022, Accessed 8th December 2022.